Changes between Version 1 and Version 2 of TracStandalone

08/27/15 23:20:06 (2 years ago)



  • TracStandalone

    v1 v2  
    1 = Tracd =
    3 Tracd は軽量なスタンドアロンの Trac web サーバです。ほとんどのケースでは [wiki:TracCgi CGI] よりセットアップが簡単で、処理速度も速くなります。
    5 == 利点 ==
    7  * 依存性が低い: apache その他 web サーバをインストールする必要がありません。
    8  * 速い: [wiki:TracModPython mod_python] バージョンと同じくらい速いでしょう。 ([wiki:TracCgi CGI] よりはずっと速い)。
    9  * 自動リロード: 開発のために、 Tracd は ''auto_reload'' モードを使用しています。そのため、コード ( Trac 自身またはプラグインのコード ) を更新したときに、自動的にサーバが再起動します。
    11 == 欠点 ==
    13  * 機能が少ない: Tracd に実装されている web サーバはとてもシンプルで、 Apache HTTPD のように拡張性のある設定ができません。
    14  * ネイティブで HTTPS に対応しない: 代わりに [ sslwrap] または
    15    [ stunnel -- tracd と stunnel を使うためのチュートリアル] または Apache の mod_proxy を使用します。
    17 == 使用例 ==
    19 ポート 8080 に単一のプロジェクトを作成します。 (http://localhost:8080/)
     1= Tracd
     3Tracd is a lightweight standalone Trac web server.
     4It can be used in a variety of situations, from a test or development server to a multiprocess setup behind another web server used as a load balancer.
     6== Pros
     8 * Fewer dependencies: You don't need to install apache or any other web-server.
     9 * Fast: Should be almost as fast as the [wiki:TracModPython mod_python] version (and much faster than the [wiki:TracCgi CGI]), even more so since version 0.12 where the HTTP/1.1 version of the protocol is enabled by default
     10 * Automatic reloading: For development, Tracd can be used in ''auto_reload'' mode, which will automatically restart the server whenever you make a change to the code (in Trac itself or in a plugin).
     12== Cons
     14 * Fewer features: Tracd implements a very simple web-server and is not as configurable or as scalable as Apache httpd.
     15 * No native HTTPS support: [ sslwrap] can be used instead,
     16   or [trac:wiki:STunnelTracd stunnel -- a tutorial on how to use stunnel with tracd] or Apache with mod_proxy.
     18== Usage examples
     20A single project on port 8080. (http://localhost:8080/)
     22 $ tracd -p 8080 /path/to/project
     24Strictly speaking this will make your Trac accessible to everybody from your network rather than ''localhost only''. To truly limit it use the `--hostname` option.
     26 $ tracd --hostname=localhost -p 8080 /path/to/project
     28With more than one project. (http://localhost:8080/project1/ and http://localhost:8080/project2/)
     30 $ tracd -p 8080 /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
     33You can't have the last portion of the path identical between the projects since Trac uses that name to keep the URLs of the
     34different projects unique. So if you use `/project1/path/to` and `/project2/path/to`, you will only see the second project.
     36An alternative way to serve multiple projects is to specify a parent directory in which each subdirectory is a Trac project, using the `-e` option. The example above could be rewritten:
     38 $ tracd -p 8080 -e /path/to
     41To exit the server on Windows, be sure to use `CTRL-BREAK` -- using `CTRL-C` will leave a Python process running in the background.
     43== Installing as a Windows Service
     45=== Option 1
     46To install as a Windows service, get the [ SRVANY] utility and run:
     48 C:\path\to\instsrv.exe tracd C:\path\to\srvany.exe
     49 reg add HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tracd\Parameters /v Application /d "\"C:\path\to\python.exe\" \"C:\path\to\python\scripts\\" <your tracd parameters>"
     50 net start tracd
     53'''DO NOT''' use {{{tracd.exe}}}.  Instead register {{{python.exe}}} directly with {{{}}} as a parameter.  If you use {{{tracd.exe}}}, it will spawn the python process without SRVANY's knowledge.  This python process will survive a {{{net stop tracd}}}.
     55If you want tracd to start automatically when you boot Windows, do:
     57 sc config tracd start= auto
     60The spacing here is important.
     63Once the service is installed, it might be simpler to run the Registry Editor rather than use the `reg add` command documented above.  Navigate to:[[BR]]
     66Three (string) parameters are provided:
     67||!AppDirectory ||C:\Python26\ ||
     68||Application ||python.exe ||
     69||!AppParameters ||scripts\ -p 8080 ... ||
     71Note that, if the !AppDirectory is set as above, the paths of the executable ''and'' of the script name and parameter values are relative to the directory.  This makes updating Python a little simpler because the change can be limited, here, to a single point.
     72(This is true for the path to the .htpasswd file, as well, despite the documentation calling out the /full/path/to/htpasswd; however, you may not wish to store that file under the Python directory.)
     75For Windows 7 User, srvany.exe may not be an option, so you can use [ WINSERV] utility and run:
     77"C:\path\to\winserv.exe" install tracd -displayname "tracd" -start auto "C:\path\to\python.exe" c:\path\to\python\scripts\ <your tracd parameters>"
     78net start tracd
     81=== Option 2
     83Use [ WindowsServiceScript], available at [ Trac Hacks]. Installs, removes, starts, stops, etc. your Trac service.
     85=== Option 3
     87also cygwin's cygrunsrv.exe can be used:
     89$ cygrunsrv --install tracd --path /cygdrive/c/Python27/Scripts/tracd.exe --args '--port 8000 --env-parent-dir E:\IssueTrackers\Trac\Projects'
     90$ net start tracd
     93== Using Authentication
     95Tracd allows you to run Trac without the need for Apache, but you can take advantage of Apache's password tools (`htpasswd` and `htdigest`) to easily create a password file in the proper format for tracd to use in authentication. (It is also possible to create the password file without `htpasswd` or `htdigest`; see below for alternatives)
     97Make sure you place the generated password files on a filesystem which supports sub-second timestamps, as Trac will monitor their modified time and changes happening on a filesystem with too coarse-grained timestamp resolution (like `ext2` or `ext3` on Linux, or HFS+ on OSX).
     99Tracd provides support for both Basic and Digest authentication. Digest is considered more secure. The examples below use Digest; to use Basic authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` in the command line.
     101The general format for using authentication is:
     103 $ tracd -p port --auth="base_project_dir,password_file_path,realm" project_path
     106 * '''base_project_dir''': the base directory of the project specified as follows:
     107   * when serving multiple projects: ''relative'' to the `project_path`
     108   * when serving only a single project (`-s`): the name of the project directory
     109 Don't use an absolute path here as this won't work. ''Note:'' This parameter is case-sensitive even for environments on Windows.
     110 * '''password_file_path''': path to the password file
     111 * '''realm''': the realm name (can be anything)
     112 * '''project_path''': path of the project
     114 * **`--auth`** in the above means use Digest authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` if you want to use Basic auth.  Although Basic authentication does not require a "realm", the command parser does, so the second comma is required, followed directly by the closing quote for an empty realm name.
     119 $ tracd -p 8080 \
     120   --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile," /path/to/project1
     123Of course, the password file can be be shared so that it is used for more than one project:
     125 $ tracd -p 8080 \
     126   --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile," \
     127   --auth="project2,/path/to/passwordfile," \
     128   /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
     131Another way to share the password file is to specify "*" for the project name:
     133 $ tracd -p 8080 \
     134   --auth="*,/path/to/users.htdigest," \
     135   /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
     138=== Basic Authorization: Using a htpasswd password file
     139This section describes how to use `tracd` with Apache .htpasswd files.
     141  Note: It is necessary (at least with Python 2.6) to install the fcrypt package in order to
     142  decode some htpasswd formats.  Trac source code attempt an `import crypt` first, but there
     143  is no such package for Python 2.6. Only `SHA-1` passwords (since Trac 1.0) work without this module.
     145To create a .htpasswd file use Apache's `htpasswd` command (see [#GeneratingPasswordsWithoutApache below] for a method to create these files without using Apache):
     147 $ sudo htpasswd -c /path/to/env/.htpasswd username
     149then for additional users:
     151 $ sudo htpasswd /path/to/env/.htpasswd username2
     154Then to start `tracd` run something like this:
     156 $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="project,/fullpath/environmentname/.htpasswd,realmname" /path/to/project
     159For example:
     161 $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="project,/srv/tracenv/testenv/.htpasswd,My Test Env" /path/to/project
     163''Note:'' You might need to pass "-m" as a parameter to htpasswd on some platforms (OpenBSD).
     165=== Digest authentication: Using a htdigest password file
     167If you have Apache available, you can use the htdigest command to generate the password file. Type 'htdigest' to get some usage instructions, or read [ this page] from the Apache manual to get precise instructions.  You'll be prompted for a password to enter for each user that you create.  For the name of the password file, you can use whatever you like, but if you use something like `users.htdigest` it will remind you what the file contains. As a suggestion, put it in your <projectname>/conf folder along with the [TracIni trac.ini] file.
     169Note that you can start tracd without the `--auth` argument, but if you click on the ''Login'' link you will get an error.
     171=== Generating Passwords Without Apache
     173Basic Authorization can be accomplished via this [ online HTTP Password generator] which also supports `SHA-1`.  Copy the generated password-hash line to the .htpasswd file on your system. Note that Windows Python lacks the "crypt" module that is the default hash type for htpasswd. Windows Python can grok MD5 password hashes just fine and you should use MD5.
     175Trac also provides `htpasswd` and `htdigest` scripts in `contrib`:
     177$ ./contrib/ -cb htpasswd user1 user1
     178$ ./contrib/ -b htpasswd user2 user2
     182$ ./contrib/ -cb htdigest trac user1 user1
     183$ ./contrib/ -b htdigest trac user2 user2
     186==== Using `md5sum`
     187It is possible to use `md5sum` utility to generate digest-password file:
     193echo ${user}:${realm}:$(printf "${user}:${realm}:${password}" | md5sum - | sed -e 's/\s\+-//') > ${path_to_file}
     196== Reference
     198Here's the online help, as a reminder (`tracd --help`):
    21  $ tracd -p 8080 /path/to/project
    22 }}}
    23 複数のプロジェクト(http://localhost:8080/project1/ と http://localhost:8080/project2/)
    24 {{{
    25  $ tracd -p 8080 /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
    26 }}}
    28 Trac は異なるプロジェクト間の URL の一意性を保つために、パスの一番最後の文字列を使用するため、プロジェクト間でパスの一番最後の部分を同じにすることは出来ません。
    29 もし、 `/project1/path/to` と `/project2/path/to` を同時に指定した場合、二つ目のプロジェクトだけしか見えなくなります。
    31 複数のプロジェクトを動かすもう一つの方法は、 `-e` オプションで親ディレクトリを指定し、サブディレクトリに TracEnvironment を配置します。上記の例は以下のように書き換えられます:
    32 {{{
    33  $ tracd -p 8080 -e /path/to
    34 }}}
    36 == 認証を使用する ==
    38 Tracd は基本認証とダイジェスト認証の両方に対応しています。デフォルトはダイジェスト認証です; 基本認証を使用するためには、以降の例で使用する `--auth` を `--basic-auth` に置き換え、レルムの指定を削除して下さい。
    40   ''基本認証への対応はバージョン 0.9 以降で追加されました。''
    42 ファイル `/path/to/users.htdigest` に project1 のユーザアカウントをレルム "" として保持している場合、以下に示すコマンドラインで tracd を起動します:
    43 {{{
    44  $ tracd -p 8080 --auth project1,/path/to/users.htdigest, /path/to/project1
    45 }}}
    47 '''Note''': `--auth` オプションで指定するプロジェクトの "名前" はそのプロジェクトの TracEnvironment ディレクトリの basename です。
    49 もちろん、ダイジェストファイルは複数のプロジェクト間で共有することが出来ます:
    50 {{{
    51  $ tracd -p 8080 \
    52    --auth project1,/path/to/users.htdigest, \
    53    --auth project2,/path/to/users.htdigest, \
    54    /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
    55 }}}
    57 ダイジェストファイルを共有するもうひとつの方法は、プロジェクトの名前に "*"
    58 を指定することです:
    59 {{{
    60  $ tracd -p 8080 \
    61    --auth *,/path/to/users.htdigest, \
    62    /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
    63 }}}
    65 == htdigest パスワードファイルの設定方法 ==
    67 もし、 Apache がインストールされているなら、パスワードファイルを生成するのに、 htdigest コマンドを使用することができます。 'htdigest' とタイプして使用方法を見るか、詳細な使用方法を見るために Apache のマニュアル [ このページ] を読んでください。ユーザを生成するたびに、パスワードを入力するように求められます。パスワードファイルの名前には好きな名前をつけることができますが、 `users.htdigest` というような名前にしておけば、ファイルに何が含まれているかを覚えておけるでしょう。指示通り、それを <projectname>/conf フォルダに [TracIni trac.ini] ファイルと一緒において下さい。
    69 引数 --auth なしで tracd をスタートできることに注意して下さい。ただし、 ''ログイン'' リンクをクリックするとエラーになるでしょう。
    71 == Apache 以外の環境でパスワードを生成する ==
    73 もし Apache が使用できない場合でも、簡単な Python スクリプトでパスワードを生成できます:
    75 {{{
    76 from optparse import OptionParser
    77 import md5
    79 # build the options
    80 usage = "usage: %prog [options]"
    81 parser = OptionParser(usage=usage)
    82 parser.add_option("-u", "--username",action="store", dest="username", type = "string",
    83                   help="the username for whom to generate a password")
    84 parser.add_option("-p", "--password",action="store", dest="password", type = "string",
    85                   help="the password to use")
    86 (options, args) = parser.parse_args()
    88 # check options
    89 if (options.username is None) or (options.password is None):
    90    parser.error("You must supply both the username and password")
    92 # Generate the string to enter into the htdigest file
    93 realm = 'trac'
    94 kd = lambda x: md5.md5(':'.join(x)).hexdigest()
    95 print ':'.join((options.username, realm, kd([options.username, realm, options.password])))
    96 }}}
    98 Note: もし tracd を --basic-auth ではなくて、 --auth オプションを使用して起動するときに、上記のスクリプトを使わないといけないとしたら --auth の値に 'trac' を( シングルクォートなしで ) 指定し、レルムを設定しなければなりません。( 上記スクリプトを として保存したとします)
    100 {{{
    101 python -u username -p password >> c:\digest.txt
    102 python tracd --port 8000 --auth proj_name,c:\digest.txt,trac c:\path\to\proj_name
    103 }}}
    105 == Tips ==
    107 === 静的なリソースを扱う ===
    109 もし、 `tracd` が単一のプロジェクトのみを扱う Web サーバだとしたら、
    110 静的なリソースを割り当てるのに使用することができます。
    111 (tar アーカイブ, Doxygen ドキュメントなど)
    113 この静的なリソースは `$TRAC_ENV/htdocs` フォルダに置き、
    114 `<project_URL>/chrome/site/...` という URL でアクセスします。
    116 例: ファイル名が `$TRAC_ENV/htdocs/software-0.1.tar.gz` だったとき、
    117 対応する URL は `/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz` となるでしょう。
    118 そして、wiki には、相対リンクシンタックスを使用して、
    119 `[/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz]` と書くことができます。
    121 Trac の開発バージョンでは新しく `htdocs:` に対応します。 TracLinks は
    122 上記のようなシンタックスになります。これによって、上記の例のリンクはただ単に
    123 `htdocs:software-0.1.tar.gz` と書くことができます。
     200Usage: tracd [options] [projenv] ...
     203  --version             show program's version number and exit
     204  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
     205  -a DIGESTAUTH, --auth=DIGESTAUTH
     206                        [projectdir],[htdigest_file],[realm]
     207  --basic-auth=BASICAUTH
     208                        [projectdir],[htpasswd_file],[realm]
     209  -p PORT, --port=PORT  the port number to bind to
     210  -b HOSTNAME, --hostname=HOSTNAME
     211                        the host name or IP address to bind to
     212  --protocol=PROTOCOL   http|scgi|ajp|fcgi
     213  -q, --unquote         unquote PATH_INFO (may be needed when using ajp)
     214  --http10              use HTTP/1.0 protocol version instead of HTTP/1.1
     215  --http11              use HTTP/1.1 protocol version (default)
     216  -e PARENTDIR, --env-parent-dir=PARENTDIR
     217                        parent directory of the project environments
     218  --base-path=BASE_PATH
     219                        the initial portion of the request URL's "path"
     220  -r, --auto-reload     restart automatically when sources are modified
     221  -s, --single-env      only serve a single project without the project list
     222  -d, --daemonize       run in the background as a daemon
     223  --pidfile=PIDFILE     when daemonizing, file to which to write pid
     224  --umask=MASK          when daemonizing, file mode creation mask to use, in
     225                        octal notation (default 022)
     226  --group=GROUP         the group to run as
     227  --user=USER           the user to run as
     230Use the -d option so that tracd doesn't hang if you close the terminal window where tracd was started.
     232== Tips
     234=== Serving static content
     236If `tracd` is the only web server used for the project,
     237it can also be used to distribute static content
     238(tarballs, Doxygen documentation, etc.)
     240This static content should be put in the `$TRAC_ENV/htdocs` folder,
     241and is accessed by URLs like `<project_URL>/chrome/site/...`.
     243Example: given a `$TRAC_ENV/htdocs/software-0.1.tar.gz` file,
     244the corresponding relative URL would be `/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz`,
     245which in turn can be written as `htdocs:software-0.1.tar.gz` (TracLinks syntax) or `[/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz]` (relative link syntax).
     247=== Using tracd behind a proxy
     249In some situations when you choose to use tracd behind Apache or another web server.
     251In this situation, you might experience issues with redirects, like being redirected to URLs with the wrong host or protocol. In this case (and only in this case), setting the `[trac] use_base_url_for_redirect` to `true` can help, as this will force Trac to use the value of `[trac] base_url` for doing the redirects.
     253If you're using the AJP protocol to connect with `tracd` (which is possible if you have flup installed), then you might experience problems with double quoting. Consider adding the `--unquote` parameter.
     255See also [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp], [trac:TracNginxRecipe].
     257=== Authentication for tracd behind a proxy
     258It is convenient to provide central external authentication to your tracd instances, instead of using `--basic-auth`. There is some discussion about this in [trac:#9206].
     260Below is example configuration based on Apache 2.2, mod_proxy, mod_authnz_ldap.
     262First we bring tracd into Apache's location namespace.
     265<Location /project/proxified>
     266        Require ldap-group cn=somegroup, ou=Groups,
     267        Require ldap-user somespecificusertoo
     268        ProxyPass http://localhost:8101/project/proxified/
     269        # Turns out we don't really need complicated RewriteRules here at all
     270        RequestHeader set REMOTE_USER %{REMOTE_USER}s
     274Then we need a single file plugin to recognize HTTP_REMOTE_USER header as valid authentication source. HTTP headers like '''HTTP_FOO_BAR''' will get converted to '''Foo-Bar''' during processing. Name it something like '''''' and drop it into '''proxified/plugins''' directory:
     276from trac.core import *
     277from trac.config import BoolOption
     278from trac.web.api import IAuthenticator
     280class MyRemoteUserAuthenticator(Component):
     282    implements(IAuthenticator)
     284    obey_remote_user_header = BoolOption('trac', 'obey_remote_user_header', 'false',
     285               """Whether the 'Remote-User:' HTTP header is to be trusted for user logins
     286                (''since ??.??').""")
     288    def authenticate(self, req):
     289        if self.obey_remote_user_header and req.get_header('Remote-User'):
     290            return req.get_header('Remote-User')
     291        return None
     295Add this new parameter to your TracIni:
     299obey_remote_user_header = true
     303Run tracd:
     305tracd -p 8101 -r -s proxified --base-path=/project/proxified
     308Note that if you want to install this plugin for all projects, you have to put it in your [TracPlugins#Plugindiscovery global plugins_dir] and enable it in your global trac.ini.
     310Global config (e.g. `/srv/trac/conf/trac.ini`):
     313remote-user-auth.* = enabled
     315plugins_dir = /srv/trac/plugins
     317obey_remote_user_header = true
     320Environment config (e.g. `/srv/trac/envs/myenv`):
     323file = /srv/trac/conf/trac.ini
     326=== Serving a different base path than /
     327Tracd supports serving projects with different base urls than /<project>. The parameter name to change this is
     329 $ tracd --base-path=/some/path
    126 See also: TracInstall, TracCgi, TracModPython, TracGuide
    128 ----
    129 '''Translation:'''
    130  * [ Russian] (перевод на Русский)
     333See also: TracInstall, TracCgi, TracModPython, TracGuide, [trac:TracOnWindowsStandalone#RunningTracdasservice Running tracd.exe as a Windows service]